Ancient viruses from Neanderthals have been found in modern human DNA by researchers at Oxford University and Plymouth University.
Indigenous hunter-gatherers and immigrant farmers lived side-by-side for more than 2,000 years in Central Europe, before the hunter-gatherer communities died out or adopted the agricultural lifestyle.
A 14 year research project in France’s Parc National des Eìcrins has shown that people have been living in the high slopes of the French Alps for over 8000 years.
In the summer of 1931, archaeologist Gustav Riek discovered the body of a ice-age mammoth-ivory figurine from a cave in Germany. Eighty years later the head belonging to that same figurine has been found and reattached to the body.
Catalogues and databases which are easily accessible to all interested parties regardless of their geographical location, occupation, background or purpose, provide a level playing field for research, publication and debate in the archaeology of the bronze age. The establishment of a canon of reliable, illustrated documentation of as many facets of the Bronze Age as are required, is a prerequisite to the future of our understanding of the Bronze Age.
What we need to do. Doctoral research involving artefact corpora appears to be unfashionable. However the compilation of such works for Food Vessels, accessory vessels and the Late Bronze Age styles is desperately needed; and the studies of Biconical Urns and MBA pottery (see above) need to be published.
The children seem to have started to engage in the adult world by the age of seven or eight, and by the age of around fourteen years, their graves are inseparable from those of the adults.
The answer I propose is: (1) only at a certain point in human cognitive evolution did it become possible for Homo sapiens to transcend certain biological limitations of the human brain by cultural means; and (2) this increased mental facility was made necessary by the reliance on larger and more cohesive social groups, itself a product of hominin evolution.
The interpretation of Neandertal life ways has probably never been as polarized as it is today. At one extreme are many archaeologists and biological anthropologists, and quite a few geneticists, who see Neandertals as belonging to a species other than our own, most often a decidedly inferior one in terms of both behavior and cognitive wherewithal