This essay argues that the treatment of captives constituted a vicious cycle in which the defenders of city would resolutely resist the siege for fear of massacre, mass rape, and enslavement; this stalwart defense, in turn, would contribute to cruel treatment of captives when and if the city fell.
Although the nature, treatment, and manumission of slaves were all raised as points of contention by ancient thinkers, the abolition of slavery per se hardly ever emerged as a possibility.
The Spartacus represented in these media is not the same Spartacus that the ancient sources wrote about. The representation of Spartacus’ history has changed dramatically over the course of time and has, in fact,
The project began with a geophysical survey of the site which generated a surprisingly clear vision of the buildings scattered along two low ridges of the Monte Lepini.
Aristocrats’ funerals celebrated their victories and enhanced their reputations. Emperors presented the games to show the public how much power they had. Among the gladiators were thousands of prisoners of war.
Though slavery was a prevailing feature of all Mediterranean countries in antiquity, the Romans had more slaves and depended more on them than any other people.
It has become clear that the culture of the Romans influenced the cultures of the provinces. Many theories have been developed to explore the nature of the exchanges between the Romans and the peoples of the provinces, and how they affected the culture and the material remains within the provinces.
Modern scholars have debated the exact nature of the Spartan krypteia (????????), a group of young men who roamed the countryside killing helots. Some have seen it as a form of education, others as a form of suppression. However, not many scholars have pointed out that the krypteia was a form of guerrilla warfare against the helot population.
When did Athens and other Greek communities become slave societies? Almost all scholars believe that this development took place in the sixth century BCE. In 1898 the German historian Eduard Meyer delivered a famous lecture about slavery in the ancient world and argued that it did not play a major role in the Greek economy until the sixth century BCE and later.