Given that their sole purpose was as outlets for trade with the East, their harbour facilities are of particular interest in understanding the organisation of the trade.
Despite opposition by certain members of society, the Eastern trade seems to have continued to grow for at least the first two centuries of Roman rule.
We know from various sorts of archaeological and palaeobotanical evidence, for example, that flax had been in use for textiles throughout southeastern Europe since the 6th millennium BC, and that wool and woolly sheep had been introduced from the Near East shortly before 3000 BC (the end of the Neolithic)
When Emperor Marcus Aurelius died on the banks of the Danube in 180 CE at Vindobona, or Vienna, the Roman Empire he left behind was the largest transcontinental, transcultural, singular political entity in history before the rise of the European nation state some fifteen centuries later.
In ancient India and Egypt, it was burned as incense, believed to purify temples and palaces. From antiquity, people have believed that amber has healing properties.
The archaeozoological evidence that is available for the trade of fish in the Eastern Mediterranean area is summarized.
Although Augustus may not have been aware of the ultimate consequences, he was not blind to the more immediate advantages of the oriental commerce.
It has become clear that the culture of the Romans influenced the cultures of the provinces. Many theories have been developed to explore the nature of the exchanges between the Romans and the peoples of the provinces, and how they affected the culture and the material remains within the provinces.
Beginning around the middle of the second century BC, the La T
This paper aims to reconstruct and suggest many of the aspects of Roman dock workers including their numbers, hiring practices, and unloading practices. The role of harbor capacity will also be reviewed to understand Rome’s ability to safely import several hundred thousand tons and prevent famine.